Background on AM-3DP

What are AM-3DP technologies?

This summary table of key AM-3DP technologies is taken from Hague, R., P. Reeves and S. Jones (2016). Mapping UK Research and Innovation in Additive Manufacturing: A review of the UK’s publicly funded R&D activities in additive manufacturing between 2012 and 2015. 

Classification Material Process description Example Commercial systems Example Developmental system
Powder Bed Fusion Metal Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Electron Beam Melting (EBM) EOS (Germany) Concept Laser (Germany)Renishaw (UK) Realizer (Germany)SLM Solutions (Germany) Matsuura (Japan) ARCAM (Sweden)
Polymer Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Masked Sintering Infrared Sintering EOS (Germany) 3D Systems (USA)Blue Printer (Denmark) HP (USA) Norge (UK) Sharebot (Italy) FIT (Germany)Renishaw / DMU (UK) University of Sheffield (UK)
Ceramic Laser Sintering EOS (Germany)
Directed Energy Deposition Metal (Powder feed) Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) Plasma Deposition Trumpf (Germany) Optomec (USA) Accufusion (Canada) Irepa Laser (France)Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies (UK) Honeywell (USA)
Metal (Wire feed) Electron Beam Direct Melting Wire Arc Sciaky (USA) Cranfield University (UK)
Material Jetting Photo- polymer Photopolymer Ink-Jetting Stratays (USA) 3D Systems (USA)LUXeXcel (Netherlands)
Wax Wax Ink-Jetting 3D Systems (USA) Solidscape-Stratasys (USA)
Organic Organic Ink-Jetting Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (USA)
Metal Liquid Metal Jetting University of Nottingham (UK)
Binder Jetting Metal Metallic Binder Jetting ExOne (USA)
Polymer Polymer Binder Jetting Voxel Jet (Germany)
Ceramic Gypsum Binder Jetting Ceramic Binder Jetting Sand Binder Jetting 3D Systems (Z-Corp) Therics (USA) ExOne (USA)
Material Extrusion Polymer Extrusion Co-Extrusion Stratasys (USA) MakerBot (USA)Delta Microfactory (China) 3D Systems (USA) Markforged
Ceramic Extrusion Paste Extrusion MIT (USA)Loughborough (UK)
Organic Extrusion 3D Systems (USA) Organovo (USA)
VATPhotopolymer- isation Photo- polymer Stereolithography (SLA) Digital Light Processing (DLP) Two Photon Lithography (2PL) 3D Systems (USA) Formlabs (USA) Envisiontec (Germany) Asiga (USA)Carbon 3D (USA) Nanoscribe (Germany) Peachy Printer (Canada)
Photopol ymer (ceramic) Ceramic Loaded Stereolithography Lithoz (Austria) 3DCeram (France)
Sheet Lamination Metallic Ultrasonic Consolidation Fabrisonic / Solidica (USA)
Ceramic Laminated Objet Manufacture CAMLEM (USA)
Organic Adhesive Lamination MCor (Ireland)

Below are some examples of key AM/3DP policies and activities from around the world (a selection of which are summarised in this paper) along with a sample of academic papers and consultancy reports on key AM/3DP themes.

International approaches:

UK: The Case for Additive Manufacturing | RAEng: Additive Manufacturing – Opportunities and Constraints |Mapping UK Research and Innovation in Additive Manufacturing |

US: America Makes |NIST Measurement Science Roadmap for Metal-based Additive Manufacturing | US National Strategy for Additive Manufacturing (Security Implications) |

Australia: Additive Manufacturing Technology Roadmap for Australia |

Academic papers and consultancy reports:

Ford, S., L. Mortara and T. Minshall (2016). “The Emergence of Additive Manufacturing: Introduction to the Special Issue.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 102 (January 2016): 156-159. [Download]

IPO (2013). 3D Printing: A Patent Overview. UK Intellectual Property Office. [Download]

McKinsey (2014). 3D Printing Takes Shape. [Download]

PwC (2014). 3D printing and the new shape of industrial manufacturing. [Download]